Bijolia was a Thikana in Mewar and had a population around 1200 in 1891. The majority of the peasants belonged to the Dhakar gotra of the Jats. The trouble started with the accession of Kishan Singh as the Bijolia Chieftain (1894). The paternalistic feudal system was given up and the new chieftain tried to realize as much revenue as possible.
In 1897, a large number of farmers had gathered at Girdharpura in Bijolia to participate in the traditional death feast (Mausar) at the house of Dhakad Gangaram whose father had passed away a few days ago. The peasants protested against the arbitrary imposition of logats and were granted same relief in 1904 which were, however with drawn by KishanSingh’s successor Prithive Singh who ascended on the Gaddi in 1906. As the representations of the peasants brought no result, they decided to leave then lands and migrated to neighboring states of Gwalior and Bundi. After Prithvi Sing’s death. The Jagir went under the court of wards.
In 1913 one Sita ram Sadhu reorganized the peasant movement by calling upon the cultivators not to till their fields or pay any taxes or ceases to the Thikana authorities till their demands were met.
To give impetus to the movement Sita Ram sadhu met Vijay Singh Pathik and urged upon him to lead the peasant movements. Pathik came to Bijolia in 1915-16 A.D. Opened a school, a library where the people could read the newspapers which brought in them greater awareness, and organized the Panchayats. Due to his strong personality and methodical efforts, the news of the Bijolia movement began to appear in the national in the newspapers. Manikya Lal Verma left services of the Thikana and assisted Pathik in making the movement successful. As the movement has acquired considerable publicity. The Maharana of Mewar appointed two commissions of inquiry which recommended the abolition of lagats and begar. Th British feared that the Bijolia and other peasant movements might not become a part of the non-cooperation movement started by Gandhi in British India in August 1920.
In May1921, the peasants of Begun were subjected to very harsh treatment by the Thikana officials. But the spirit of the Kisans remained high.
Bijolia agreement in February, 1922 provided for considerable reduction in logats and other taxes. Thus at begun, the land revenue was reduced from ½ to 1/3. The British did not take any interest in the implementation of the terms of agreement. Movements in Rajasthan during this period, the Bijolia movementi exercised greatest influence on other peasant movements and attracted widest attention. It was a test case of non-violent passive resistance movement which continued for a much longer period than a similar in British India. Movement brought to the some leaders such as Vijay Singh Pathik, Manikya Lal Verma and Ram Narain Choudhary. Jamna Lal Bajaj was already a well known figure and his proximity to Gandhiji was a positive advantage for the movement.
Author:- Dr. Namita Sharma