Abortion is the process of partial or complete separation of the products of conception from the uterine wall with or without partial or complete expulsion from the uterine cavity before the age of viability [28 weeks].
It is also sometimes known as a ‘termination’ or a ‘termination of pregnancy’.
There are two types of abortion:-
1. Spontaneous Abortion
Spontaneous abortion, also known as miscarriage, is the unintentional expulsion of an embryo or fetus before the 24th week of gestation.
Two leading factors associated with a greater risk of spontaneous abortion. A spontaneous abortion can also be caused by accidental trauma; intentional trauma or stress to cause miscarriage is considered induced abortion or feticide.

2. Induced abortion
Approximately 205 million pregnancies occur each year worldwide. Over a third are unintended and about a fifth end in induced abortion.
Spontaneous abortion are divided into many types-
 Threatened abortion
 Inevitable abortion
 Complete abortion
 Incomplete abortion
 Missed abortion
 Septic abortion
There are a variety of causes of miscarriage. Common causes may include:-
• Chromosomal problems.
• Unhealthy lifestyle (obesity, drug and alcohol use).
• Maternal age.
• Trauma.
• Untreated thyroid disease.
• Diabetes.
• Infections.
Sign and symptoms:-
• Mild/Severe back pain.
• Heavy spotting.
• Vaginal bleeding.
• Expulsion of tissue with clots from the vagina.
• Severe abdominal pain.
• Cramps.
Diagnosis:- There are many diagnosis-
• Blood tests to detect hormone imbalances.
• Chromosome tests (done through blood and/or tissue samples).
• Pelvic and uterine exams.
• Ultrasounds.
 Bed rest.
 Provide drugs- diazepam 5 mg to relief the pain.
 Advice the mother do not hard work.
 Routine checkup TPR and vaginal bleeding.
 Advice the mother to avoid sexual intercourse at last from 1 month after abortion.
 Dilation and suction.
 Dilation and evacuation.
 Dilation and curettage.
 Antibiotic should be administered to control the infection.
 Analgesics and sedatives for sedation and pain relief.
 Provide psychological support.
 Hysterctomy.
 Laparotomy.

Author: Pinky Choudhary