Definition and  description of GONORRHEA


Gonorrhea is an infection that is caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The usual symptoms in men are a burning sensation with urination and discharge from the penis. Women have no symptoms about half the time or have vaginal discharge and pelvic pain. In both men and women, if gonorrhea is left untreated, it may spread locally, causing inflammation of the epididymis or pelvic inflammatory disease or throughout the body, affecting joints and heart valves.
Testing all women who are sexually active and less than 25 years of age each year is recommended.
SIGN & SYMPTOMS: – gonorrhea affecting the genital tract S/s of gonorrhea infection in men
1. Painful urination
2. Pus like discharge from the tip of the penis
3. Pain or swelling in one testicle
In women include;
1. Increased vaginal discharge
2. Painful urination
3. Vaginal bleeding between periods, such as after vaginal intercourse
4. Abdominal pain

CAUSE: – Gonorrhea is caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

DIAGNOSIS: Traditionally, gonorrhea was diagnosed with gram stain and culture; however, newer polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based testing methods are becoming more common. In those failing initial treatment, culture should be done to determine sensitivity to antibiotics. All people testing positive for gonorrhea should be tested for other sexually transmitted diseases such as Chlamydia, syphilis, and human immunodeficiency virus.

PRIVENTION:- As with most sexually transmitted diseases, the risk of infection can be reduced significantly by the correct use of condoms and can be removed almost entirely by limiting sexual activities to a mutually monogamous relationship with an uninfected person.
Those previously infected are encouraged to return for follow up care to make sure that the infection has been eliminated.
MANAGEMENT:-
Many antibiotics that were once effective including penicillin, tetracycline, and fluoroquinolones are no longer recommended because of high rates of resistance.
Resistance to cefixime has reached a level such that it is no longer recommended as a first-line agent in the United States, and if it is used a person should be tested again after a week to determine whether the infection still persists

RAKESH KUMAR SHARMA