Calculus is a part of modern mathematics. In this we study about the functions and limits, broadly called mathematical analysis. Calculus has been called “the calculus of infinitesimals”, or “infinitesimal calculus”. The word “calculus” comes from Latin and refers to a small stone used for counting. More generally, calculus refers to any method or system of calculation guided by the symbolic manipulation of expressions. Some examples of other well-known calculi are propositional calculus, calculus of variations, lambda calculus, and process calculus
Calculus is the study of change, with the basic focus being on
• Rate of change
There are two different fields of calculus.
1. Differential calculus
2. Integral calculus
The first subfield is called differential calculus. In this we use the concept of function derivatives, in this we study about the behavior and rate on how different quantities change. Using the process of differentiation, the graph of a function can actually be computed, analyzed, and predicted.
The second subfield is called integral calculus. Integration is actually the reverse process of differentiation, concerned with the concept of the anti-derivative. Either a concept, or at least semblances of it, has existed for centuries already. Even though these 2 subfields are generally different form each other, integration and differentiation are linked by the fundamental theorem of calculus.
The development of calculus and its applications in physics and engineering is most significant factor in the development of modern science.