Bioremediation means to use a biological remedy to abate or clean up contamination. This makes it different from remedies where contaminated soil or water is removed for chemical treatment or decontamination, incineration, or burial in a landfill. Microbes are often used to remedy environmental problems found in soil, water, and sediments. Plants have also been used to assist bioremediation processes. This is called phyto remediation

Microbial population: Suitable kinds of organisms that can biodegrade all of the contaminants
Oxygen: Enough to support aerobic biodegradation (about 2% oxygen in the gas phase or 0.4 mg/liter in the soil water)
Water: Soil moisture should be from 50–70% of the water holding capacity of the soil
Nutrients: Nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and other nutrients to support good microbial growth
Temperature:  Appropriate temperatures for microbial growth (0–40˚C)
pH: Best range is from 6.5 to 7.5

Natural bioremediation has been occurring for millions of years. Biodegradation of dead vegetation and dead animals is a kind of bioremediation. It is a natural part of the carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur cycles. Chemical energy present in waste materials is used by microorganisms to grow while they convert organic carbon and hydrogen to carbon dioxide and water.


Author: Kanchan Sharma