KIDNEY- There are two kidneys which are dark red bean shaped, placed one on either side of median vertebral column in the lumbar region, but not on the same level. In the case of man , right kidney is slightly on the lower side of the abdominal cavity is occupied by the liver. Outer surface of each kidney is convexand inner concave which faces the vertebral column. A depression called hilus is present on the concave side, from where the ureter takes its origen and join the urinary bladder backwardly.
Internal structure of kidney- Internally each kidney is divided into two zones an outer dark red zone, cortexand inner pale red zone the medulla ureter entering through the hilus expand forming a wide funnel shaped structure pelvis which has its free end a number of cap like cavities called calyces and each cavity is called calayx. Medulla is divided into cone like structure called renal pyramids. Microstructure of the kidney- Each kidney contain a no of nephrons which are reffered as the structural and functional unit of kidney. Nephrones are concentrated with the separation of urine from the blood.Nephron begin with malphigian capsule and followed by a very much coiled uriniferous tubules. The former consist of bowmen capsule and network of blood capillaries and reffered as glomerulus.