Scoliosis is a medical condition in which a person’s spine is curved from side to side. Scoliosis can occur in the whole spine (total scoliosis) or only in one part of the spine.
There are many types and causes of scoliosis, including:
(I) Congenital scoliosis: Caused by a bone abnormality present at birth.
(II) Neuromuscular scoliosis: A result of abnormal muscles or nerves. Frequently seen in people with spine bifida or cerebral palsy or in those with various conditions that are accompanied by, or result in, paralysis.
(III) De-generative scoliosis: This may result from traumatic (from an injury or illness) bone collapse, previous major back surgery, or osteoporosis (thinning of the bones).
(IV) Idiopathic scoliosis: The most common type of scoliosis, idiopathic scoliosis, has no specific identifiable cause. There are many theories, but none have been found to be conclusive. There is, however, strong evidence that idiopathic scoliosis is inherited.
Scoliosis disease is common in youth .So identifying the disease and its stage plays a crucial role. To identify the disease doctors use direct observation in this direct observation the patient is told to bend the body and doctor will observe his shoulder and comes to a conclusion. The second method is X-rays in this cobb’s angle measurement is used. With this method we determine the degree of the curvature. Once the disease is identified there are many ways to cure the bending depending upon the degree of curvature. There are certain standard methods also:
1) Physiotherapy -which uses schroth’s method
2) Braces-this is done only when Cobb’s angle is over 30.
3) Surgery- Surgery is usually recommended by orthopedists for curves with a high likelihood of progression (i.e., greater than 45 to 50° of magnitude), curves that would be cosmetically unacceptable as an adult, curves in patients with spina bifida and cerebral palsy that interfere with sitting and care, and curves that affect physiological functions such as breathing. Surgery for scoliosis is performed by a surgeon specializing in spine surgery. For various reasons, it is usually impossible to completely straighten a scoliotic spine, but in most cases, significant corrections are achieved.
The two main types of surgery are:
1. Anterior fusion: This surgical approach is through an incision at the side of the chest wall.
2. Posterior fusion: This surgical approach is through an incision on the back and involves the use of metal instrumentation to correct the curve. One or both of these surgical procedures may be needed. The surgery may be done in one or two stages and, on average, takes four to eight hours.