DEFINITION: – It is a metabolic disorder characterized by disturbed metabolism of fat, carbohydrates and proteins due to deficiency of insulin is known as diabetes mellitus.
TYPES:- It is mainly two types:-
1. Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
2. Non insulin diabetes mellitus

1) INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETE MELLITUS (JUVENILE DIABETES MELLITUS):- In type 1st diabetes mellitus there in no endogenous production of insulin by beta cells. So body depends upon exogenous supply of insulin.
Type first mostly occurs in children so it is called as “juvenile diabetes mellitus’’.
2) NON INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS:- There is endogenous production of insulin so body does not depend upon exogenous supply of insulin so it is called as non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.
It is mostly occur after 40 years of age, so it is called “adult diabetes mellitus”

 It is main cause is unknown. But type 1st diabetes mellitus may occur due to destruction of beta cells of pancreas. Beta cells may be destroyed by auto immune disease.
 Carcinoma of beta cells.
 Congenital abnormality of beta cells.


 Decrease production of insulin by beta cells due to age.
 Increase demand of body for insulin.
 Insulin resistance.

 The most common diabetes symptoms include frequent urination, intense thirst and hunger, weight gain, unusual weight loss, fatigue, cuts and bruises that do not heal, male sexual dysfunction, numbness and tingling in hands and feet.
 History taking
 Physical examination
 Glucose tolerance test
 Urine test
 Pro-insulin level

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease, for which there is no known cure except in very specific situations. Management concentrates on keeping blood sugar levels as close to normal, without causing low blood sugar. This can usually be accomplished with a healthy diet, exercise, weight loss, and use of appropriate medications (insulin in the case of type 1 diabetes; oral medications, as well as possibly insulin, in type 2 diabetes).
Sulfonyl agents- Glipizide, Tolazamide, Tolbutamide .
Non sulfonyl agent- Metformin, caboose.

Author: Rakesh Sharma